Friday, August 8, 2008

Performance Research for June: Ergogenics

Want to know the latest on how to increase your performance? Check it out below!

A single protein meal increases recovery of muscle function following an acute eccentric exercise bout

Etheridge T, Philp A, Watt PW.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Jun;33(3):483-8.Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008

Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Chelsea School Research Centre, Welkin Research Laboratories, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, BN20 7SP, UK.

A single protein meal increases recovery of muscle function following an acute eccentric exercise bout. Etheridge T, Philp A, Watt PW. Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Chelsea School Research Centre, Welkin Research Laboratories, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, BN20 7SP, UK.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute protein ingestion on the recovery of muscle function and markers of muscle damage in the 72 h post eccentric-exercise. Nine recreationally active males recorded quadriceps maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), peak 5 s power output (PPO), and perceived muscle soreness. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) and protein carbonyl (PC) content were measured prior to exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was induced by a 30 min downhill run (-10 degrees ) at a target intensity of 75% age-predicted heart rate maximum, immediately followed by ingestion of 100 g protein (containing 40 g essential amino acids; PRO) or placebo (CON) solution. The pre-exercise measures were re-taken in the subsequent 24, 48, and 72 h. CK, PC, and perceived muscle soreness increased significantly following exercise and with each supplement at 24 h. PC and muscle soreness remained elevated at 48 and 72 h (p < style="font-weight: bold;">

Conclusion: Ingestion of a single post-exercise protein mixture increases the rate of force and power restoration at 48 h, suggesting potential for protein as an ergogenic aid during the DOMS period.

My Notes: Be sure to have some protein and carbs around your training time!

Caffeine consumption amongst British athletes following changes to the 2004 WADA prohibited list.

Chester N, Wojek N. Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. This study was undertaken to examine self-reported caffeine consumption and reasons for its use, amongst UK athletes, following its removal from the 2004 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List. A convenience sample of track and field athletes (n = 193) and cyclists (n = 287) completed a postal or Web-based questionnaire. Messages were posted on athletics and cycling club Web sites and mailing lists to direct athletes to the Web-based questionnaire. Postal questionnaires were distributed at domestic sporting events. A higher proportion of cyclists (59.9 %) compared with track and field athletes (32.6 %) consumed caffeine to enhance performance (p < p =" 0.031)" p =" 0.010)" style="font-weight: bold;">
Conclusion:Results revealed that amongst UK athletes, the intention to use caffeine as an ergogenic aid was high, and that use was more widespread and accepted in competitive sport, especially at elite level, when compared to recreational sport.

Ergogenic effects of low doses of caffeine on cycling performance.

Jenkins NT, Trilk JL, Singhal A, O'Connor PJ, Cureton KJ. Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. The purpose of this experiment was to learn whether low doses of caffeine have ergogenic, perceptual, and metabolic effects during cycling. To determine the effects of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg caffeine on cycling performance, differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (D-RPE), quadriceps pain intensity, and metabolic responses to cycling exercise, 13 cyclists exercised on a stationary ergometer for 15 min at 80% VO, then, after 4 min of active recovery, completed a 15-min VO2peak performance ride 60 min after ingesting caffeine or placebo. Work done (kJ/kg) during the performance ride was used as a measure of performance. D-RPE, pain ratings, and expired-gas data were obtained every 3 min, and blood lactate concentrations were obtained at 15 and 30 min. Compared with placebo, caffeine doses of 2 and 3 mg/kg increased performance by 4% (95% CI: 1.0-6.8%, p = .02) and 3% (95% CI: -0.4% to 6.8%, p = .077), respectively. These effects were ergogenic, on average, but varied considerably in magnitude among individual cyclists. There were no effects of caffeine on D-RPE or pain throughout the cycling task. Selected metabolic variables were affected by caffeine, consistent with its known actions.

Conclusion: The authors conclude that caffeine preparations of 2 and 3 mg/kg enhanced performance, but future work should aim to explain the considerable interindividual variability of the drug's ergogenic properties.

Potential ergogenic effects of l-arginine against oxidative and inflammatory stress induced by acute exercise in aging rats.

Huang CC, Tsai SC, Lin WT. Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC. In this study, we report protective effects of dietary l-arginine (l-Arg) supplementation against oxidative stress and inflammation in aging rats during exhaustive exercise. Thirty 18-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC); sedentary control with l-Arg treatment (SC+Arg); exhaustive exercise (E); and exhaustive exercise with l-Arg treatment (E+Arg). Rats in groups SC+Arg and E+Arg received a 2% l-Arg diet. Rats in groups E and E+Arg performed an exhaustive running test on a treadmill. The mean duration of exercise differed significantly between groups E and E+Arg (51+/-6 versus 63+/-3min). Results showed significant increases in xanthine oxidase (XO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and in lipid peroxidation end-product (malondialdehyde, MDA) levels of myocardial, muscular, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal tissues of exercised rats compared with SC and SC+Arg rats. The increased XO and MPO activities and MDA levels significantly decreased in exercised rats that were fed a diet supplemented with l-Arg. We also found that l-Arg supplementation prevented exhaustive exercise-induced elevations of plasma aminotransferase activity, and lactate and uric acid levels in aging rats.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that l-Arg supplementation enhances exercise capacity and protects against oxidative damage and inflammatory responses caused by exhaustive exercise in aging rats.

My Notes: Keep in mind that this in our fury friends and human data on this is limited (translation--save your money for now on L Arginine)