Friday, April 24, 2009

Performance Research for April : Fat Loss and Exercise part 1

Two-fer and Twitter!
It is a 2 for 1 Friday! I was up at 4:20am today to head for the lab for some more testing in the Energy Drink study, so I am feeling a bit brain dead between Exercise Physiology labs while trying to stay away from the coffee as long as I can; so I figured it would be a great time to kick out some new studies for ya. Yes, I do read studies to relax. Scary I know.

If you are interested in what I am doing, you can follow me at Twitter. I will have random updates and even new studies I am reading weeks before they show up here (and some never make it that far) and other tips. Feel free to hit me up there with anything you want to see also!

Click the link below and then hit the "follow" button below my mug shot.

On to the studies on Fat Loss and Exercise

Influences of a dietary supplement in combination with an exercise and diet regimen on adipocytokines and adiposity in women who are overweight.

Fragala MS, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Maresh CM, Puglisi MJ, Vingren JL, Ho JY, Hatfield DL, Spiering BA, Forsythe CE, Thomas GA, Quann EE, Anderson JM, Hesslink RL Jr. Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA.

The influence of a proprietary blend of modified cellulose and cetylated fatty acids (Trisynextrade mark, Imagenetix, Inc., San Diego, CA 92127, USA) on adipocytokine and regional body composition responses to a weight loss program was examined.

Twenty-two women (Supplement group (S) (n = 11): age = 36.8 +/- 7.2 years; weight = 87.1 +/- 6.2 kg; % body fat = 43.4 +/- 4.1; Placebo group (P) (n = 11): age = 38.3 +/- 6.8 years; weight = 86.9 +/- 4.7 kg; % body fat = 44.3 +/- 2.0) completed an 8-week placebo-controlled, double-blind study consisting of a caloric restricted diet and cardiovascular exercise.

Body composition and serum insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed at pre-, mid-, and post-intervention.

From pre- to post-intervention, significant decreases (P < class="blsp-spelling-error" id="SPELLING_ERROR_31">leptin (S: 28.3 +/- 3.5-16.2 +/- 2.6 ng ml(-1); P: 29.4 +/- 3.2-19.9 +/- 1.1 ng ml(-1)) (P < class="blsp-spelling-error" id="SPELLING_ERROR_34">mU l(-1); P: 7.7 +/- 0.9-5.1 +/- 0.3 mU l(-1)).

Serum adiponectin increased (P < class="blsp-spelling-error" id="SPELLING_ERROR_37">microg ml(-1): 12.6 +/- 2.0-21.8 +/- 3.1 microg ml(-1)) (P < style="font-weight: bold;">

CONCLUSION: Supplementation with a proprietary blend of modified cellulose and cetylated fatty acids during an 8-week weight loss program exhibited favorable effects on adipocytokines and regional body composition.

My Notes: Interesting idea for a study, but while the results were statistically significant, dropping 1% of body fat over 8 weeks is not much. Even if you were 400 lbs that would only be 4 lbs. Again, statistically significant does not mean REAL world significant. Perhaps if you are a competitive bodybuilder in the single digits for body fat and you are looking to drop a few more pounds, than 1 lbs a week is great. These subjects were far from that group though.

Adiponectin is a "good guy" and we actually want higher levels of it, was shown here.

Speaking of it.......

Adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to bone mineral density in physically active older women: longitudinal associations.

Jürimäe J, Kums T, Jürimäe T. Institute of Sport Pedagogy and Coaching Sciences Institute of Exercise Physiology and Physiotherapy, Centre of Behavioural and Health Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

PURPOSE: We investigated the relationship between the decrease in bone mineral mass (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) values with baseline adipocytokine and ghrelin concentrations in physically active postmenopausal women.

METHODS: Leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, BMC, BMD and different body composition values were measured in 35 women (age: 69.7+/-6.0 years) before and after a 12-month prospective study period.

RESULTS: Significant (P<0.05) class="blsp-spelling-error" id="SPELLING_ERROR_58">FFM) (by 2.56%) and BMC (by 1.63%) and increases in adiponectin (by 14.8%) were seen in older females as a result of the study period. The independent variables that were associated with decreases in total BMC were baseline fat mass (FM) and adiponectin explaining 30.6% (R(2)x100) of the total variance. In another model, baseline FFM and leptin were the independent variables that explained 20.6% (P<0.05) class="blsp-spelling-error" id="SPELLING_ERROR_65">BMD value. The variables that were associated with decreases in femoral neck BMD were FM and leptin (R(2)=0.102; P<0.05), class="blsp-spelling-error" id="SPELLING_ERROR_68">adiponectin in the model with decreases in lumbar spine BMD as the dependent variable, and accounted for 13.1% (P<0.05) class="blsp-spelling-error" id="SPELLING_ERROR_70">BMD variance.

CONCLUSIONS: Initial adiponectin concentration together with specific body composition characteristics predicted loss in bone mineral mass and lumbar spine bone mineral density values, while initial leptin concentration together with specific body composition parameters determined the loss in total and femoral neck bone mineral density values in physically active older women.

My notes: Keep in mind that this is an ASSOCIATION study which means that "Hey, we saw this and this!" It does NOT mean that "This CAUSED that"

A classic example is if you observe a large fire and see tons of fire trucks there. You could INcorrectly assume that the huge number of fire trucks there CAUSED the fire (which would be untrue).

Having said all that, I am interested as we start to uncover how the body is all interconnected. It makes sense that if we have more muscle and muscle pulls on bone, great muscle mass means greater stress on the bones (from the shear weight and more likely the higher forces exerted on the bone).

Beyond that, there is some early data showing a correlation between bone and fat loss and this study provides a little more data in the area as it was looking at hormone level.

Supervised exercise versus non-supervised exercise for reducing weight in obese adults.

Nicolaï SP, Kruidenier LM, Leffers P, Hardeman R, Hidding A, Teijink JA. Department of Vascular Surgery, Atrium medical centre Parkstad Heerlen, The Netherlands

AIM: The prevalence of obesity is rising. Because obesity is positively associated with many health related risks and negatively associated with life expectancy this is a threat to public health. Physical exercise is a well known method to lose fat mass. Due to shame of their appearance, bad general condition and social isolation, starting and continuing physical exercise tends to be problematic for obese adults. A supervised training program could be useful to overcome such negative factors. In this study we hypothesized that offering a supervised exercise program for obese adults would lead to greater benefits in body fat and total body mass reduction than a non-specific oral advice to increase their physical activity.

METHODS: Thirty-four participants were randomised to a supervised exercise program group (N.=17) and a control group (N.=17). Fifteen candidates in the intervention group and 12 in the control group appeared for baseline measurements and bought an all inclusive sports pass to a health club for Euro 10, per month. The control group just received the oral advice to increase their physical activity at their convenience. The supervised exercise group received biweekly exercise sessions of 2 hours with an estimated energy expenditure of 2 500 kJ per hour. Both groups received no dietary advice. RESULTS: After 4 months the overall decrease in body mass in the intervention group was 8.0 kg (SD 6.2) and the decrease in body fat was 6.2 kg (SD 4.5). The control group lost 2.8 kg overall (SD 4.2) and the decrease in body fat was 1.7 kg (SD 3.1). Correction for differences between groups in gender and age by multiple linear regression analysis showed significantly greater loss of total body mass (P = 0.001) and fat mass (P =0.002) in the intervention group compared with the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: Stimulation of physical activity alone seems to result in a slight short term body mass and fat mass reduction in obese adults who are eager to lose weight. Supervised exercise under supervision of a qualified fitness instructor leads to a larger decrease.

My Notes: Part of me is sad that we even have to do studies like this, but they are good to have.

Once again it goes to show you that if you want RESULTS get a PROFESSIONAL to help you!

If you get in trouble, are you going to try to represent yourself in court--I sure hope not! Do you try to diagnose yourself when you have a serious health issue--again, I hope not. So why do you think you can design and even further FOLLOW your own nutrition and exercise plan? If you want serious results, you need to get professional help.

Rock on!
Mike T Nelson